Thursday, March 12, 2020

The Impact of the Dust Bowl on the Environment

The Impact of the Dust Bowl on the Environment Many accidents and natural disasters have done serious environmental damage to the United States. Some of the most famous events include the  1989  Exxon Valdez  oil spill, the 2008 coal ash spill in Tennessee, and the Love Canal toxic dump disaster that came to light in the 1970s. But none of these events, despite their tragic consequences, come close to being the worst environmental disaster in the United States. The worst was the 1930s Dust Bowl- created by the drought, erosion, and dust storms, or black blizzards, of the so-called Dirty Thirties. It was the worst and most prolonged environmental disaster in American history. The dust storms started at about the same time that the Great Depression really began to grip the country, and continued to sweep across the Southern Plains- western Kansas, eastern Colorado and New Mexico, and the panhandle regions of Texas and Oklahoma- until the late 1930s. In some areas, the storms didnt relent until 1940. Decades later, the land is still not completely restored.  Once thriving farms are still abandoned, and new dangers are again putting the Great Plains environment in serious jeopardy. Causes and Effects In the summer of 1931, the rain stopped coming and a drought that would last for most of the decade descended on the region. Crops withered and died. Farmers who had plowed under the native prairie grass that held the soil in place saw tons of topsoil, which had taken thousands of years to accumulate, rise into the air and blow away in minutes. On the Southern Plains, the sky turned lethal. Livestock went blind and suffocated, their stomachs full of fine sand. Farmers, unable to see through the blowing sand, tied themselves to guide ropes to make the walk from their houses to their barns. Families wore respiratory masks handed out by Red Cross workers, cleaned their homes each morning with shovels as well as brooms, and draped wet sheets over doors and windows to help filter out the dust. Still, children and adults inhaled sand, coughed up dirt, and died of a new epidemic called dust pneumonia. Frequency and Severity of Storms The weather got worse long before it got better. In 1932, the weather bureau reported 14 dust storms. In 1933, the number of dust storms climbed to 38, nearly three times as many as the year before. At its worst, the Dust Bowl covered about 100 million acres in the Southern Plains, an area roughly the size of Pennsylvania. Dust storms also swept across the northern prairies of the United States and Canada, but the damage there couldnt compare to the devastation farther south. Some of the worst storms blanketed the nation with dust from the Great Plains. A storm in May 1934 deposited 12 million tons of dust in Chicago and dropped layers of fine brown dust on the streets and parks of New York and Washington, D.C. Even ships at sea, 300 miles off the Atlantic coast, were left coated with dust. Black Sunday The worst dust storm of all hit on April 14, 1935- Black Sunday. Tim Egan, a New York Times reporter and best-selling author who wrote a book about the Dust Bowl called The Worst Hard Time, described that day as one of Biblical horror: The storm carried twice as much dirt as was dug out of the earth to create the Panama Canal. The canal took seven years to dig; the storm lasted a single afternoon. More than 300,000 tons of Great Plains topsoil was airborne that day. Disaster Gives Way to Hope More than a quarter million people fled the Dust Bowl during the 1930s- environmental refugees who no longer had the reason or courage to stay. Three times that number remained on the land and continued to battle the dust and to search the sky for signs of rain. In 1936, the people got their  first glimmer of hope. Hugh Bennett, an agricultural expert, persuaded Congress to finance a federal program to pay farmers to use new farming techniques that would conserve topsoil and gradually restore the land. By 1937, the Soil Conservation Service had been established, and by the following year, soil loss had been reduced by 65 percent. Nevertheless, the drought continued until the autumn of 1939, when rains finally returned to the parched and damaged prairie. In his epilogue to The Worst Hard Time, Egan writes: The high plains never fully recovered from the Dust Bowl. The land came through the 1930s deeply scarred and forever changed, but in places, it healed. . . After more than sixty-five years, some of the land is still sterile and drifting. But in the heart of the old Dust Bowl now are three national grasslands run by the Forest Service. The land is green in the spring and burns in the summer, as it did in the past, and antelope come through and graze, wandering among replanted buffalo grass and the old footings of farmsteads long abandoned. Looking Ahead: Present and Future Dangers In the 21st century, there are new dangers facing the Southern Plains. Agribusiness is draining the Ogallala Aquifer- the United States largest source of groundwater, which stretches from South Dakota to Texas and supplies about 30 percent of the nations irrigation water. Agribusiness is pumping water from the aquifer eight times faster than rain and other natural forces can refill it. Between 2013 and 2015, the aquifer lost 10.7 million acre-feet of storage. At that rate, the aquifer will be completely dry within a century. Ironically, the Ogallala Aquifer is not being depleted to feed American families or to support the kind of small farmers who hung on through the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl years. Instead, the agricultural subsidies that began as part of the New Deal to help farm families stay on the land are now being given to corporate farms that are growing crops to be sold overseas. In 2003, U.S. cotton growers received $3 billion in federal subsidies to grow fiber that would ultimately be shipped to China and made into cheap clothing to be sold in American stores. If the water runs out, there wont be any for the cotton or the inexpensive clothing, and the Great Plains will be the site of yet another environmental disaster.

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

The Antitrust Battle Ahead Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Antitrust Battle Ahead - Essay Example It may so happen that the merged organizations gains at the expense of the consumer. This is where the government chips in, through its antitrust regulations. The government reserves the right, and rightly so, to intervene and block any merger deal which it feels would reduce competition in the industry and thereby adversely affect the consumers, either by way of high prices or by way of low quality. In some cases, these mergers may lead to less innovation thus indirectly putting consumers at a loss. Section 7 of the Clayton Act disallows mergers and acquisitions when such transactions may significantly lower competition, or may create a monopoly, or may lead to formation of cartels (Federal Trade Commission 2011). Simply put, the purpose of antitrust legislations is to enforce laws that promote competitive markets. These laws thus ensure efficient allocation of resources in a free market and prevent market failures. The focal point of antitrust economics is competition (Scheffman 2002). It is competition that is at the heart of many important business decisions and to a large extent determines the firms pricing strategies and tactics. The Federal Trade Commission’s Bureau of Competition, along with the Bureau of Economics is entrusted with the enforcement of such antitrust laws in the United States. The FTC and Department of Justice review scores of merger filings every year of which 95 percent have no competitive issues (Federal Trade Commission 2011). The first category consists of merger proposals wherein the competitive concerns can be resolved by mutual consent of the parties concerned. The revised merger proposal, so arrived after negotiations, retains the beneficial aspects of the deal and discards the threat. The federal regulators negotiated a settlement in the proposed merger deal of Comcast and NBC Universal. As a part of the revised deal, Comcast agreed to give up

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Personal development plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Personal development plan - Essay Example Upon discussing the important key skills as a promising young Civil Engineer, strategic ways on how I manage to improve my technical knowledge, other related skills, and career path on building construction be tackled in details. Among the important key skills of a promising young civil engineer includes: a good leadership skill, creativity and technical knowledge required in leading a construction project, and good communication skills. Since civil engineers are planners who are responsible in managing people, a good leadership skill is necessary to ensure that internal conflicts are avoided and/or well-negotiated. One of the best ways to win the trust and respect of fellow engineers and subordinates is to show competitive technical knowledge needed when managing a construction project. To avoid unnecessary human errors caused by miscommunication, civil engineers should improve their communication skills at all levels. Since I was 6 years old, my father who works as an engineer introduced me to a lot of basic engineering theories and concepts. Having a strong basic engineering background made me develop enthusiasm in learning and knowing how buildings, roads, and bridges are being constructed. With the purpose of fulfilling my future goals, I managed to earn a diploma on Civil Engineering at the Technology College of Onizah right I graduated from high school. To further enhance my knowledge and skills as a civil engineer, I went through another year of professional training at the Council of Badaya. Because of my desire to pursue a career in Civil Engineering, I spent a lot of time reading building construction and architectural books during my free time. I read books not only regarding how each buildings, roads, and bridges are uniquely designed, constructed, and maintained but also books related to physics, mathematics, and project management related to civil engineering. Aside from

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Touch of Evil Essay Example for Free

Touch of Evil Essay Touch of Evil (Orson Welles, 1958) attempted to lift the stylish low-budget crime drama form with quality directing, writing, acting, cinematography, soundtrack, and locations, while maintaining the authentic film-noir motif. One of the key elements of film-noir was steamy sexuality, and Touch of Evil exploited this genre feature enthusiastically with lurid and seductive characterizations and scenes of tawdry sexual tension. Touch of Evil takes place in a border town between the USA and Mexico, representing the thin line separating two different cultures and realities. The lead character finds himself in a dilemma when a murder takes just as he and his bride cross the border. He struggles to deal with local officials without ruining his honeymoon, but events conspire against him. The local Sheriff is dishonest, his wife is kidnapped by his enemies, and his murder investigation takes him into an underworld of human misery, corruption, and sleaze. In 1958, interracial relationships were socially unacceptable, perhaps even forbidden in certain sections of America. Hollywood generally avoided the subject until the controversial Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967, Stanley Kramer), almost a decade later. So when Touch of Evil’s opening scene presents a Hispanic man and a Caucasian women, a newly wed couple, it purposely introduces an element designed to produce audience anxiety. When Orson Welles’ character, Sheriff Quinlan, realizes that the characters portrayed by Charleton Heston as Miguel Vargas, a virile Mexican, and Janet Leigh as Suszie, a sexy American, are a honeymooning husband and wife, he snidely comments, â€Å"She dont look Mexican†¦.† Earlier, the Mexican border guards addressed the same issue with similar disdain. These scenes establish interraciality as a socially unaccepted custom in the film’s universe and focuses the audience’s attention and expectation of danger on the issue. The plot soon fulfills the expectation. Vargas, an honest and incorruptible police official, tries to help the local police solve a murder that he and Suzie witnessed as they crossed the border into Mexico in the open scene. In one scene of high sexual tension – and fantasy – Suzie, in seductive lingerie, in the privacy of her hotel room, has phone sex with her husband who has called her from a pay phone. A blind man, adding a titillating voyeurism to the scene overhears the conversation. Matters are complicated when Suzie is kidnapped by criminals with a grudge against Vargas, and Vargas’ dedication to his prosecurial duty and concern for his wife leave him with a dilemma of two separate crises both demanding him to take action. The stakes rise when Vargas becomes convinced that the local sheriff (Welles’ Quinlan) is corrupt and is framing an innocent man. Vargas tries several times to rescue Suzie, which fail and serve to incite the kidnappers to threaten Suzie with sexual degradation, and ultimately places her in even greater danger of being murdered. The result of these events on top of the smoldering relationship between the main characters is a story that produces a story environment of smoldering sexuality that produces scenes rife with sexual anxiety. Sources consulted: â€Å"Touch of Evil† retreived Oct. 16, 2007 Ebert, Roger. Review of â€Å"Touch of Evil† September 13, 1998

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Botswana :: Africa World Essays Country

Botswana INTRODUCTION Have you ever heard of Botswana? Well, it is a country in Africa. Most people have never heard of Botswana, just like most people do not know that Egypt is in Africa. Pretty interesting? I, myself, had never heard of Botswana until I was selected to spend six weeks on a missionary internship there. I also did not know that Egypt was in Africa until recently. I would not give up my experience in Botswana away for the world. That is not what I am here to tell you about, though. I would love to tell you all about the mission trip and my plans for going back for a two year stay; however, I would like to inform you about the country of Botswana. I would like to begin by telling you where Botswana is. We will then look at this country under South African rule, compared to the independent government of Botswana that now exists. I would also like to have you look at the people and their culture to sho3w you what kind of people they are, and how simply they live and still get along quite well. I hope you enjoy this informational page of a country that many people have never heard about, and maybe it will inspire you to at least make a visit to see if I am telling the truth. NATIONAL STANDARDS The scope of this paper will identify and help readers to visualize the three National standards listed under the heading topic "Places and Regions." By explaining the past and the present of Botswana, including how the people, culture, economy, beliefs, and government have changed, the reader will understand National Standard number four which says: "Knows and understands the physical and human characteristics of places." I am hoping that this paper will open some of our ethnocentric minds to understand the growing world around us. It will also help define National Standard number five which states: "Knows and understands that people define regions and use them to interpret the world’s changing complexity." Botswana is a third world country, however, it is becoming more known because of its developing economy and stable government.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Consumer Ethics Essay

In this paper I will express my opinion on the thought that some marketers say that targeting any group of consumers who are willing and able to purchase a product is simply good marketing. I will discuss why I believe that this is a good marketing technique. I will also discuss whether or not I think it is important for college students to study the topic of consumer ethics. Good Marketing? I believe that it is a smart marketing technique to target any group of consumers who are willing and able to purchase a product even if it is fatty foods and soft drinks being marketed towards children. The reason that I believe this is because it is the marketer’s job for a company to get consumers to purchase the product that they are advertising. Although it may be morally wrong to target children for products like candy, they are most likely the group who will either be purchasing this product or influencing their parents to purchase it. This is why I believe it is a smart strategy for marketers, although it may be slightly questionable. Consumer Ethics I believe that it is important for college students to study consumer ethics. The reason that I believe this is because in order for us to fully mature as adults I think that we need to learn how to be completely ethical in all aspects of life, including being a consumer. Consumer ethics can teach us about software piracy, which I believe is a huge problem with many college students who illegally download music and films. I believe that this can help us in our lives so it is important for college students to learn about consumer ethics. This is why I think college students should study consumer ethics. Conclusion In this paper I discussed my feelings on two different topics. The first topic was about questionable marketing tactics, which I believe can be effective and is a good way to market. The second topic I expressed my views on was consumer ethics, and whether or not college students should study it. The main reason that I said college students should study consumer ethics is because of music piracy and how popular it is among college students. These are my feelings on these two important subjects. Bibliography Schiffman, Leon G., Leslie Lazar Kanuk, and Joseph Wisenblit. Consumer Behavior. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, 2010.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Is Schizophrenia A Disorder - 850 Words

Schizophrenia is a disorder that is characterized by incredibly impaired cognitive processes, personality disintegration, mood disturbances, and a withdrawal from society (Sue et al., 2014). There are many different causes for this disorder, and research has been done to support these claims over time. The first cause for schizophrenia, like many other disorders and diseases, is biology. Researchers have found that a large number of different genes result in schizophrenia, rather than a few single genes, which only make up very minor contributions (Sue et al., 2014). Closer blood relatives also run a higher risk of developing schizophrenia (Sue et al., 2014), but this can also due to similar environmental factors. The study of endophenotypes, which are measurable heritable traits, is helping to identify which specific genes are responsible for certain characteristics that are evident in schizophrenia (Sue et al., 2014). Several endophenotypes that occur in schizophrenia have been ide ntified by researchers, which â€Å"include irregularities in working memory, executive function, sustained attention, and verbal memory† (Chan et al., 2011). When looking at MRIs, decreased volume in the cortex and other areas of the brain are also common in individuals with schizophrenia when compared to someone without it (Hajima et al., 2013). This can lead to atypical or weak connectivity to other brain structures and regions, which leads to impaired cognitive processing, which is shown withShow MoreRelatedSchizophrenia- Mental Disorder1002 Words   |  5 Pagesthat later diagnosed him with disorganized schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a severe chronic mental disorder that causes people to live in an alternate â€Å"universe† inside of his or her head. There are different types of schizophrenia that have different symptoms from one another and different causes of the disorder, but thankfully there are medicines that can help ease some of the symptoms. Schizophrenia is defined as a â€Å"group of severe mental disorders characterized by reality distortions resultingRead MoreSchizophrenia Is A Mental Disorder Essay1319 Words   |  6 PagesSchizophrenia is a mental disorder that affects about 1% of the population world wise between the ages of 16-30 (Nordqvist 2016). The word Schizophrenia means, â€Å"Split mind† but it does not cause a split personality and was first introduced by a Swiss man named Eugen Bleuler (Simon Zieve, 2013). Schizophrenia has different subtypes, including Paranoid-type, Disorganized-type, Catatonic-type, Undifferentiated-type, and Residual-type (Simon Zieve, 2013). Men develop the symptoms in their early teenageRead MoreIs Schizophrenia A Mental Disorder?1107 Words   |  5 PagesSchizophrenia is a mental disorder that is thought to be brought on by certain genetic factors as well as environmental ones. It affects the way a person perceives reality. The person diagnosed with schizophrenia will often perceive auditory, visual, kinetic, and olfactory stimuli that aren’t actually present. The disease also affects how the person feels and acts as well. Scientist who study Schizophrenia have not clearly defined the core causes of this disease however it is thought to have a strongRead MoreThe Psychological Disorder Of Schizophrenia Essay1582 Words   |  7 PagesPSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER Name of Institution Course name Name of instructor Name of student Date of submission Sign â€Æ' Introduction A psychological disorder is also referred to as a mental disorder or psychiatric disorder. 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The development of schizophrenia can progressRead MoreSchizophrenia Is A Psychological Disorder1829 Words   |  8 PagesSchizophrenia is one of the most treacherous brain disorders that affect many people in the world today. It is very difficult for someone to distinguish between what is real and what is not. Most people with this disorder are considered disabled because daily life as a normal person is almost impossible. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, people with schizophrenia may hear voices that other people don’t hear, and they also may think other people are trying to hurt them. SometimesRead MoreIs Schizophrenia A Mental Disorder?981 Words   |  4 PagesSchizophrenia is a mental disorder, which relentlessly affects approximately 1 percent of the world’s population. This term comes from the Greek, Schizo meaning â€Å"splitting† and Phrenia which means â€Å"of the mind† so therefore Schizophrenia is defined as a split mind. This disorder makes it hard for the person who has it to distinguish between what is real and what is imagined. Reason being is that it weakens their ability to think logically, express normal emotions, and behave properly in social situationsRead MoreIs Schizophrenia A Mental Disorder? Essay1502 Words   |  7 PagesSchizophrenia is a mental disorder that affects many elements of the body and mind. This mental illness causes people to lose touch with reality Schizophrenia (2016). People with this illness suffer from hallucinations, paranoia, hearing voices, fear and persecutory delusion, which affects a person’s ability to think, feels, and behaves clearly. Most people with thinks illness are usually between the ages 16 and 30. Researchers have not found an exact cause of this disease but rather it is geneticallyRead MoreThe Psychological Disorder Of Schizophrenia1941 Words   |  8 Pages The Psychological Disorder of Schizophrenia Caleb Weidman University of Valley Forge Abstract Infamous for its terrifying symptoms and unknown cause, schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that occurs when the brain’s normal equilibrium of glutamate and dopamine are altered. This can happen because of genetic disorders, an unhealthy living environment or pre-existing faulty brain structure or chemical makeup. The symptoms of the disorder include visual and auditory hallucinationsRead MoreIs Schizophrenia A Mental Disorder? Essay1753 Words   |  8 Pagesâ€Å"Please hear this: There are not ‘Schizophrenics’ There are people with Schizophrenia.† (Elyn Saks). How much do you actually know about Schizophrenia and the people who have it? You may know that it is a mental disorder in your brain that affects function and fragmentation. What so many of you do not know is the way it is diagnosed, how it is treated, the different types of Schizophrenia, and of course so much more. What I will be covering in this paper will be the different types, the proces s of